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    為何侯寶林不愿在大學講相聲


       侯寶林先生晚年,名滿天下。南開大學幾位先生請他去講話,擊節嘆賞,氣氛和悅。未了,一位副校長不經意地來了句:侯先生,您來一段兒。據說侯先生當場拉下臉來:對不起,我是來講學的。意思是:我是來講課的,不是來說相聲的。

      侯先生一輩子,很重視尊嚴二字,甚至于過敏,不難理解。老年間,說相聲的人是玩意兒,和戲子一樣,被當作下九流。唯其如此,才得爭一口氣。梨園行的大師,成了名之后,都有傲氣,也是為這個。汪曾祺先生寫過京劇演員任志秋先生,寫他新中國成立后,自覺翻身,覺得很受優待。我一個戲子,能上小湯山療養。要擱舊社會,姥姥!

      您會問了:藝人、藝術家,不是很受尊敬的嗎?并非如此。閻立本,畫過《歷代帝王圖》,當過唐朝宰相,名垂天下,聲聞后世。但因為會畫畫,受過大折辱。唐太宗與一群學士在春苑劃船,看見好看的鳥兒,就讓學士們歌詠,召閻立本來畫畫。外頭就嚷了:畫師閻立本!”——那時,閻立本的官位是主爵郎中,一頭大汗地跑來,趴在畫池旁邊,調色作畫,抬頭看看座上賓客,難過極了。回去了,對兒子說:我少年時候愛讀書,也還好;只是被人知道會畫畫,被呼來喝去當仆役,丟人丟大了。你記著,千萬別學畫畫!

      中國古代有句話:學而優則仕。所以后世人等,多批評中國讀書人目的性過強,讀書徒然為了功名。干嗎不去當畫家、當詩人、當音樂家呢?事實是,早期的偉大文人,都是身為顯貴,而后留名文化史。唐朝之前的書畫名家,幾乎沒有平民出身,尤其是書法,簡直是門閥貴族、朝廷貴臣的藝術。到清朝,不顯貴的藝術家也有,比如揚州八怪那幾位,要么做個小官,要么便是小吏,再不體面點,只好去做清客。

      哪怕到了2016年,人人平等的觀念也該深入人心了,世界推崇的藝術家,依然不是因為他們的藝術,而是因為他們有名。杰夫·昆斯早年搞過現當代藝術,沒成功,只好去當證券經紀人。而立之年,他成了成功的藝術家,直至今日。他成名前后的作品風格并未變化,所得反響卻大不相同。《獨立報》的記者如是說:在這個藝術家不會被看作明星的時代,昆斯卻花費了很多精力,通過雇用一個形象顧問來培養他的公眾人物角色。

      有點殘忍,這個世界尊重已經成名的藝術家或已成經典的藝術家,但并不尊重藝術家這個群體——在未成名之前,很多世人都有意識或者無意識地覺得他們都不過是玩意兒。譚鑫培一度被叫作譚貝勒,還為此自鳴得意。他老人家認為演員們尤其得傲,得自尊,得把自己的活兒當寶。因為說到底,藝人自己不尊重自己,還能指望誰尊重自己呢?

      ——因為一世以老生稱雄的他,開頭也是學武丑入門的,知道這個行當,多么招人小看。

     

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